Interim: Acts of Adaptation

“Interim: Acts of Adaptation” is the overarching theme of the 17th edition of Singapore Archifest. It is an invitation to rethink our built environment as continually being in a state of transition. Presenting itself as a lab, this edition of Archifest investigates the potential of adaptive architecture as the mode of action in response to pressing environmental, cultural, and technological change.

Evident in planning and policy language, Singapore is no stranger to the ‘Interim’ with its range of discrete stopgap interventions — interim markets, bus stops, and even housing, are commonly encountered in the city. While this thinking has powered the nation through a hyper-efficient production of our cityscape, we can no longer afford to be uneasy about the temporal necessity of continual change, as our city matures and navigates an increasingly volatile world.

In allowing the city and its structures to constantly adapt and incrementally evolve across scale and time, we are empowered to anticipate and manage the uncertainty intrinsic in broader social and ecological circumstances. Bringing together practitioners of the built environment both locally and regionally, this year’s Archifest is a collective endeavour to explore new paradigms of architecture that embraces the “interim” as a responsive strategy towards shaping a more resilient and sustainable future.

Singapore Archifest is a space for imagination, conversation, and speculation. It intends to be a platform for people from all walks of life to participate in uninhibited dialogue, creative collaboration, and thoughtful, collective deliberation, in relation to contemporary architectural issues. And with every iteration of the festival, we work towards the cultivation of a more design-conscious society and vibrant creative culture.

Why ‘Interim’?

The theme “Interim: Acts of Adaptation” arises from the convergence of several major currents in our global and local context. These are some of the shaping forces that are the premises of Singapore Archifest 2023.

Rethink Built Environment

We now live in a state of permacrisis. The normalising of black swan events is symptomatic of a world finally buckling from the stressors of contemporary life. From the climate emergency to changing social demographics, the need to revise old paradigms of thinking and doing is obvious. Yet we should not only seek to address these challenges, but also seize this opportunity to critically rethink our built environment.

Embrace Temporality

Our environments are never perennial. The pandemic has proven that nothing is absolutely predictable and a static master plan is no longer sensible. Resisting the drive to master our environments and to fortify structures out of fear, we begin to perceive that life and its environments are a temporal phenomena. 

With this revision in our assumptions, we can now cultivate a more collaborative, middle-ground approach to liquidly reshape our urban habitats. To survive — and thrive — in permacrisis, we need to develop new paradigms of constant adaptation across scales and geographies. The built environment is an Interim project.

Singapore is ‘Interim’

We are already used to change.

Singapore is no stranger to the ‘interim’, evident from its prevalence not only in planning terminologies (“interim use”, “interim park”, “interim market”) but in policy language as well (“interim allowance”, “interim caregiver”). There is opportunity for Singapore to recognise and further cultivate the value of this already existing approach in addressing permacrisis — from a local position, and promote productive discourse on this regionally.

Seed Regional Networks

Permacrisis is borderless, and so should be our response. The interim exists across scales, and it already manifests strongly and uniquely in the region. Interim strategies must be coordinated regionally to be effective. To that end, AF is important not only as a local event, but also regionally by bringing together thought leaders, practitioners and interested audiences from across the region. AF should not be missed by any of our neighbours.


The three sub-themes of AF23 are Interim Environments, Interim Cultures and Interim Technologies. Each of these themes explores how working with temporality entails a reevaluation of premises and practices within each domain.

Interim Environments
investigates our climate emergency and new ways of handling physical space.

  • What does the transition towards a 1.5 degree rise in global temperature by 2050 entail in visible terms for our cities, and how does it precondition its possibilities? 
  • How can we rethink and reconfigure the environment in a way that permits its identification as an original site of climate resilience? 
  • What does it mean to adjust to a more drastic and unpredictable environment? 
  • How can addressing this reality surface opportunities for human and ecological rebalancing?

Interim Cultures
examines needs and implications of our changing social demographics.

  • Having hit an 8 million global population count, how are some cities coping with rapid population growth as others confront shrinkages? How are their urban fabrics adjusting to this?
  • How can urban revitalisation strategies take into account the Interim agenda for flexible planning? What cultural and land policy changes can encourage paradigms of adaptation to take root?
  • How can cities strive to achieve degrowth while maintaining economic competitiveness?
  • What is the potential in the lightweight mobile population model and its urban implications, especially for demographics situated at the frontline of climatic extremity?

Interim Technologies
explores systems and methods that facilitate sensitive rebuilding and adaptive planning.

  • How can new platforms and tools for city planning facilitate agile planning that inclusively adapt to unforeseeable changes?
  • What systems of sensors and feedback generation and visualization can be deployed to aid in understanding and anticipating environmental changes while propagating time-sensitive information?
  • What are some innovations in the building and materials production industries that support building reuse?

Kampong Gelam

“Interim: Acts of Adaptation” takes to the city at the site of Kampong Gelam. 

Kampong Gelam features in Singapore’s national history as an important trade hub since the Dutch conquests of Southeast Asia in the 1820s. It is significant that Stamford Raffles chose to locate the city centre of Temasek in Kampung Gelam, along the Rochor River during its founding, and this urban block quickly saw the expansion of its Bugis, Javanese, South Indian and Chinese population from here. Kampong Gelam was very much the representative ‘centre’ of Singapore.

In partnership with the Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) and the Kampong Gelam Alliance (KGA), Archifest 2023 seeks to uncover these ever-aggregating layers of the city, taking Kampong Gelam as a site of the city’s “Interim” forces.  The layers of Singapore’s history are not at all static; they are themselves interim — fluctuating, emerging and receding at different times of the nation’s development.

Kampong Gelam is the epicentre of Singapore Archifest 2023. The AF Exhibition, AF Incubators, AF Play! and AF Recommends congregate at the Festival House in the middle of Kampong Gelam, while the AF Installations are dispersed across the whole district. The festival spreads islandwide into satellite districts via the Incubator programme, which studies specific design issues in these neighbourhoods.

With Kampong Gelam as our site of experimentation and demonstration of the interim, Archifest activates the city like never before.

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Danny Wicaksono


Danny Wicaksono completed his architectural education at Trisakti University, Jakarta, in 2006. In 2007 he worked for Adi Purnomo  (mamostudio) and in 2010 he joined andramatin for a brief period. He founded studiodasar in 2014. In the past decade his works are not limited to designing buildings. He writes, curates architectural exhibitions, directing a design festival, and designing a masterplan for a better living space. He was also involved in the Aga Khan Award for Architecture, as two time Technical Reviewer in 2019 and 2022. Danny Wicaksono is a member of The International Committee for Architectural Critics (CICA) and now share his time residing in Bintaro and Tubaba, Indonesia.

Yuma Shinohara
Swiss Architecture Museum


Yuma Shinohara is a curator at the S AM Swiss Architecture Museum. Before joining the S AM, he held editorial and curatorial positions at Storefront for Art and Architecture, Ruby Press, the Academy of Arts Berlin, and the Canadian Centre for Architecture. At the S AM, Shinohara has curated the exhibition Make Do With Now (2022), co-curated the exhibitions Swim City (2019) and Beton (2021), and overseen the adaptation of Access of All (2021) in collaboration with the Architecture Museum of TU Munich and the Institute of Architecture of the University of Applied Arts Northwest Switzerland. He has lectured and served as visiting critic at institutions such as the EPFL, ETH Zurich, Bauhaus University Weimar, University of Waterloo, and the Architectural Institute of Japan. He graduated in comparative literature and society from Columbia University in New York.

Mio Tsuneyama
Studio mnm


Mio Tsuneyama is a Japanese architect and founder of Studio mnm. She began her study of architecture at Tokyo University of Science (TUS), Japan and completed at École Polytechnique Fédéral de Lausanne (EPFL) in 2008 as Swiss Government International Scholarships student, where she taught as a visiting professor in 2022-2023. She worked as an architect at HHF Architects in Basel after her study until she went back to Tokyo to start her own practice Studio mnm in 2012. 

Mio has built her career in the academic field since then as she taught at TUS as Assistant Professor and Junior Associate Professor since 2013. She also teaches at several private universities in Japan and has begun to teach as a guest professor at EPFL in 2022 and as Adjunct Associate Professor at Columbia University.

Studio mnm’s most notable project is “House for Seven People” (2013), a renovation of the single family house into shared house which received a special mention as an exhibited project of Japanese Pavilion for national pavilion in the 15th International Architecture Exhibition, and “Holes in the House” (2017-), which she renovates while living there with her partner Fuminori Nosaku.

Nazmi Anuar


Nazmi Anuar is an architect and educator based in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. He is a partner at the architectural research practice E9A, a collaborator with the collective New Office and runs Normal Architecture in addition to his teaching post at the School of Architecture, Building and Design, Taylor’s University. He holds a Bachelor of Architecture from UPM and a Postgraduate Masters in Architecture and Urban Design from The Berlage, TU Delft. His first book Background Frame Platform was published by Suburbia Projects in 2021.

Charles Lai
aona architects

Hong Kong

Charles Lai is an architect (RIBA) and researcher in the history and conservation of Hong Kong and Asian modern architecture. He received his PhD degree in architectural history from the University of Hong Kong Department of Architecture, and diploma degree from the AA School of Architecture in London. 

He currently teaches at the PolyU and the Lingnan University. Charles is also a member of the DOCOMOMO HK Chapter. Charles is founder and director of the architectural studio & heritage conservation consultancy, aona, and co-founder of a digital marketing and experience curatorial company Culture Lab. and focuses primarily on design, heritage conservation, research and curatorial works related to built heritage and architectural history. Charles also writes regularly for academic journals and columns. His research interests include the history of modern architecture in East and Southeast Asia, the material culture and history of Shanghai plaster, as well as the conservation of historical built heritages.

Yunhee Choi + Jinhong Jeon

South Korea

Yunhee Choi is a registered architect(UK) and has studied architecture at Cambridge University and the Architectural Association School of Architecture. She has practised at Doojin Hwang Architects(KR), Wilkinson Eyre Architects (UK) and Jason Bruges Studio (UK) where she was responsible for a number of public art and architecture projects. She was a Visiting Professor at Korea National University of Arts, Public City Architect of Seoul, and a co-curator of the Seoul Exhibition at the Seoul Biennale of Architecture and Urbanism 2021. She is currently serving as Deputy Director for the inaugural exhibitions of The Korea National Museum of Urbanism and Architecture.


Jinhong Jeon graduated from Architectural Association School of Architecture (UK) and has worked at OMA (NL) and Space Group(KR) where he was involved in a wide range of international projects and competitions. He was an Adjunct Professor at Korea National University of Arts and a co-curator of the Seoul Exhibition at the Seoul Biennale of Architecture and Urbanism 2021. He is currently serving as Deputy Director for the inaugural exhibitions of The Korea National Museum of Urbanism and Architecture.

Deanna Dzulkifli


Deanna is an independent producer working with a range of forms, from dance and performance art to visual arts and music. Recent producing work include Third Wheeling by Awkward Party with restaurant Artichoke for Singapore Art Week 2023. She has also held positions at ARTSG as Talks Manager, programme coordinator at Dance Nucleus and is currently the Company Manager of The Observatory.

Mok Cui Yin


Cui is an in(ter)dependent producer and facilitator who has produced for independent artists across arts disciplines, and for organisations including Esplanade – Theatres on the Bay, The Substation, Asia Network for Dance, Dance Nucleus, NTU Centre for Contemporary Art Singapore, Asian Film Archive, Arts House Limited, and the National Arts Council.

Hanif Ramadan


Hanif is an Indonesian architectural designer based in Jakarta and Singapore. He graduated with a Masters in Architecture and Urban Design at Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy, and gained experience as a professional architect in Jakarta, Tokyo, Milan, and Singapore. He is very much interested in architectural practice as a means of framework, cultural work, and research. Currently, he practices as an architect that responds from the smallest detail of architecture to the bigger scale of a complex environment.

Rachel Fong

Curatorial Assistant

Rachel is currently a rising third-year undergraduate at Yale-NUS College, majoring in Urban Studies and minoring in English Literature. Her education has allowed her to pursue intersecting interests in language, sociology, art, and the built environment. She views architecture and urbanity as an intrinsic site of identity formation, and is particularly interested in the practice of intentional idling as a means of informal autoethnographic inquiry.

Fadhilah Nordin


Fadhilah is an M.Arch graduate from Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD). She has since worked on a range of projects across different scales, from detailing a cabinet all the way to drawing broad lines that demarcate a future road. Fadhilah has a particular interest in patterns and behaviours, predicting and observing how single design interventions affect how people use and move through spaces. Outside of work, she is usually thinking of a new business idea or trying to make cycling her main mode of transport one day at a time.

Chew Yunqing


Yunqing is invested in architecture as a mode of theoretical inquiry to provoke human understanding. Her current top 5 interests include:

  1. The relationship between the Particular (building) and the Multiple (city).
  2. Typology of gatherings across no. of pax and scale.
  3. Crowdfunding small-scale developments.
  4. Reading the ‘architecture’ of literary and philosophical texts as central to understanding them.
  5. Platform to sell artists’ drafts and studies.

Lai Chee Kien

Chee Kien is a registered architect in Singapore, and researches on histories of art, architecture, settlements, urbanism and landscapes in Southeast Asia. Chee Kien’s works on architectural history are widely published in the region, earning his reputation as a leading voice in local architectural history and conservation. He has been sitting on the URA Conservation Advisory Panel since 2012.

Teo Yee Chin
Red Bean Architects


Teo Yee Chin is a registered architect based in Singapore. He graduated with M. Arch from Harvard GSD in 2003 and BA(Arch) from NUS in 1999. He has taught architectural design at NUS and SUTD, and has published opinion articles in The Straits Times and various architectural journals. After working with various offices including William Lim Associates and Kay Ngee Tan Architects, he founded Red Bean Architects in 2009, a practice that seeks to foster spatial and historical continuity in the city. Notable works of the practice include the 2016 Singapore Pavilion at Venice Biennale, House X, Common Ground and Delta Sport Centre. Yee Chin has always believed in, and practised, writing as a creative tool to think with. In addition to contributing critical reviews to journals and the press, he was formerly Chief Editor of leading architectural journal The Singapore Architect. Concurrent with managing Red Bean Architects, he is now also a doctoral candidate in human geography at NUS, studying the production of rural space in Taiwan as part of a broader investigation into sustainability beyond the tidy frame of the city-state.

Sarah Ichioka
Desire Lines


Sarah Mineko Ichioka is an urbanist, strategist, curator and writer. She leads Desire Lines, a strategic consultancy for environmental, cultural, and social-impact initiatives and organizations. Her latest book, Flourish: Design Paradigms for Our Planetary Emergency, co-authored with Michael Pawlyn, proposes a bold  set of regenerative design principles for addressing our compound environmental and social crises. Sarah has been recognized as a World Cities Summit Young Leader, one of the Global Public Interest Design 100, and an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects. In previous roles she has explored the intersections of cities, society and ecology within leading international institutions of culture, policy and research, including as Director of The Architecture Foundation (UK). A recent Designing Cities for All Fellow at Pakhuis de Zwijger (Netherlands), Sarah currently serves on the advisory boards of the Klosters Forum (Switzerland) and Participate in Design (Singapore). Sarah’s critical writing has been published by Triennale di Milano, La Biennale di Venezia, Shenzhen Bi-City Biennale of Urbanism/Architecture and the Serpentine Gallery. Her work has been featured in outlets including the Financial Times, Channel News Asia, BBC London and Bloomberg CityLab.

Craig Miller
Heatherwick Studio

United Kingdom

As Project Leader, Craig Miller has led some of Heatherwick Studio’s largest and most complex commissions. After joining in 2008, Miller spent five years in Hong Kong delivering the rejuvenation of Pacific Place. Returning to London, he then led a team on the 1,000 Trees project (Shanghai) and a new-build office for Google. More recently, he has played leading roles on the ongoing transformation of London’s Olympia Exhibition Centre, EDEN—a nature-infused residential tower in Singapore and Changi T5 (in collaboration with KPF). Having lived in Singapore for 4 years, Miller now leads the Shanghai studio – Heatherwick’s first permanent presence outside of London.

Freek Persyn


Freek Persyn is a co-founder of the office 51N4E, a spatial design practice focused on urban and social transformation. 51N4E works on a wide range of scales, from strategy to realization, and designs the built environment with an affinity for both the physical and the invisible dimensions of space. The work of 51N4E received the most attention for its adaptive reuse projects in Central Europe and for its intense engagement with Albania. Since 2019, Freek Persyn combines his partnership at 51N4E with the professorship of Architecture and Urban Transformation at the ETH Zürich.

Momoyo Kaijima
Atelier Bow-Wow


Momoyo Kaijima (b. 1969, Tokyo JP) graduated from the Faculty of Domestic Science at Japan Women’s University in 1991. She founded Atelier Bow-Wow with Yoshiharu Tsukamoto in 1992. In 1994, she received her master degree from the Tokyo Institute of Technology. During 1996–1997, she was a guest student with a scholarship from Switzerland at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (ETHZ). In 2000 she completed her post-graduate program at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. She served as an assistant professor at the Art and Design School of the University of Tsukuba since 2000, and as an associate professor from 2009 to 2022. In 2012 she received the RIBA International Fellowship. Since 2017 she has been serving as a Professor of Architectural Behaviorology at ETHZ. She taught at Harvard GSD (2003, 2016), guest professor at ETHZ (2005-07), as well as at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts (2011-12), Rice University (2014-15), Delft University of Technology (2015-16), and Columbia University (2017). While engaging in design projects for houses, public buildings and station plazas, she has conducted numerous investigations of the city through architecture such as Made in Tokyo and Pet Architecture. She was the curator of Japan Pavilion at the 16th International Architecture Exhibition – La Biennale di Venezia. In 2022, she received the Wolf Prize Laureate in Architecture.

Dongwoo Yim

South Korea

Dongwoo is an architect, urbanist, writer, and educator. He is the co-founder and principal of PRAUD as well as assistant professor at Graduate School of Architecture and Urban Design in Hongik University. As an urbanist, his research focuses on revisiting urban production as a tool for developing a circular economy and sustainable social chain. Also, as an architect, Dongwoo explores typologies in architecture that not only examines contemporary architectural language but also creates urban phenomena in a collective manner. He is the award winner of Architectural League Prize 2013 and the participating artist to 2014 Venice Biennale Korean Pavilion, the Golden Lion winner. Dongwoo was the co-curator of Pyongyang Sallim in 2017 Seoul Biennale of Architecture and Urbanism, co-curator of the Cities exhibition in the 2019 SBAU, and the general co-curator of the Cities Exhibition in the 2019 SBAU, and the general director of Daegu Global Studio 2023. His publications include “AD Magazine: Productive Urbanism: The Meta Industrial City (Wiley)”, “A Language of Contemporary Architecture: An Index of Topology and Typology (Routledge)”, and “Unprecedented Pyongyang (Actar)” amongst others.

Betty Ng

Hong Kong

Betty is the Founder and Director at COLLECTIVE, a RIBA Chartered Practice. She is a Registered Architect in the Netherlands, a RIBA Chartered Architect in the United Kingdom and an Associate member of the AIA, United States. Betty holds an M. Arch. Post Graduate Degree from Harvard University and a B. Arch. Professional Degree from Cornell University. Betty is currently an Adjunct Associate Professor at the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK), co-teaching Master Architecture Design Studio with COLLECTIVE Directors Chi-Yan Chan and Juan Minguez. She is previously Visiting Professor of Architecture at the National University of Singapore, Adjunct Assistant Professor at CUHK advising Master Thesis, and Assistant Professor at the University of Hong Kong. She has also acted as External Examiner and Final Review Jury at RMIT, SUTD, NUS, CUHK and HKU. Prior to setting up COLLECTIVE, Betty was Design Director at OMA Rotterdam with Pritzker Prize Laureate Rem Koolhaas, she co-led the winning proposal for the Axel Springer Media Headquarters in Berlin, the Hermitage Museum Art Repository in St. Petersburg and the West Kowloon Cultural District Master Plan in Hong Kong among many projects.

Ma Yansong
MAD Architects


Ma Yansong is recognized as an important voice in the new generation of architects. As the first Chinese architect to win an overseas landmark-building project, Ma is committed to developing futuristic, organic, and technologically-advanced designs that embody a contemporary interpretation of the Eastern affinity for nature. With a vision for the city of the future based in the spiritual and emotional needs of residents, he endeavors to create a balance between humanity, the city, and the environment. Founded MAD Architects in 2004 and how has offices in Beijing (China), Los Angeles (USA) and Rome (Italy), Ma leads design across various scales globally for different needs of social groups, such as urban complexes and infrastructures, museums and theaters, kindergarten, public housing. Parallel to his design practice, he has also been exploring with the public the cultural values of cities and architecture through exhibitions, publications and art works. In 2022, MAD Architects was recognized as “Best Cultural Firm” by Fast Company, and became the first architectural firm to win this award in China. From 2019 to 2021, Ma was awarded as “China’s Most Influential Designer” for three years by Architectural Digest. In 2016, he was honored as “Certification of Recognition” by City of Los Angeles. In 2010 he became he the first architect from China to receive a RIBA international fellowship. In 2006, he was awarded the “Young Architects Award” by the Architectural League of New York. Ma holds a Master’s Degree in Architecture from Yale University, and a Bachelor’s degree from the Beijing Institute of Civil Engineering and Architecture.

Danny Wicaksono


Danny Wicaksono completed his architectural education at Trisakti University, Jakarta, in 2006. In 2007 he worked for Adi Purnomo  (mamostudio) and in 2010 he joined andramatin for a brief period. He founded studiodasar in 2014. In the past decade his works are not limited to designing buildings. He writes, curates architectural exhibitions, directing a design festival, and designing a masterplan for a better living space. He was also involved in the Aga Khan Award for Architecture, as two time Technical Reviewer in 2019 and 2022. Danny Wicaksono is a member of The International Committee for Architectural Critics (CICA) and now share his time residing in Bintaro and Tubaba, Indonesia.

Andra Matin


Andra Matin – both the man and the firm, andramatin, are known for their clean and modern approach to architecture. The works of andramatin have been a constant reflection of contemporary take on traditional values, that are based on its context and its sensitivity to the environment. Aside from his architectural projects, Andra Matin is also one of the founders of Arsitek Muda Indonesia (AMI – eng: Young Architects of Indonesia), and has been a part of the progress in Indonesian architecture. He also has released books under a publication that opens up discussions about architecture, along with being a frequent lecturer at universities, seminars, and architectural events both in Indonesia and in international events. His latest installation titled Elevation has been granted a Special Mention Award at the 16th Venice Biennale, for its traditional sense and its contemporary take. Inspired by his great love of travel, Andra Matin continues to search out more knowledge and experiences, in order to further celebrate the architecture of Indonesia. In addition, one of their projects, Bandara Blimbingsari in Banyuwangi, was selected as one of the winners of Aga Khan Awards for Architecture in 2022.

Singapore Archifest 2023 takes to the city in a wide array of conferences, installations, workshops, talks, tours and more. This year, the festival centres around the Kampong Gelam Precinct that reveals the evolution of the Malay royalty grounds, while locating many modernist buildings awaiting rejuvenation, all forming an interim urban trace of Singapore’ national development. With Kampong Gelam as our site of experimentation and demonstration of the interim, Archifest activates the city like never before.

Aurelia Chan


Aurelia is an architectural designer with an affinity for small moments and big narratives in the city. With a particular interest in urban marginality and slum developments in the region, Aurelia performs informal inquiries into the leftover spaces of urban environments. In the day, Aurelia engages with architecture in diagrams, words and sunshine, and in the evening she explores theoretical manifestations of space and culture.

Chong Lingxiu


Lingxiu Chong (AADip, Assoc. AlA) is a Singaporean architectural designer and educator based in San Francisco. She studied at the Architectural Association in London, and proceeded to practice with a focus on adaptive re-use and conservation, with Collective Studio and Office of Metropolitan Architecture (OMA) in Asia, and Page & Turnbull in California. Lingxiu currently teaches at California College of the Arts and the Architectural Association, and works with like-minded individuals and organisations on projects of various formats to build community and culture.

Calvin Chua

Festival Director

Calvin Chua practices at the intersection of design, planning and advocacy. He runs Spatial Anatomy, a research-oriented design practice with an interest in urban adaptation and transformation. In parallel, Calvin teaches at SUTD and was most recently a Visiting Professor at the Korea National University of Arts. Complementing his practice, Calvin engages the wider design community through writing for international magazines and exhibiting at various international biennales, including Seoul and Venice. Recognised for his distinct approach to design practice, Calvin was an Asia 21 Next Generation Fellow in 2022 and a finalist for the Lisbon Triennale Debut Award 2022. A registered architect in the UK, Calvin graduated from the Architectural Association School of Architecture.